Phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle

The SDLC approach is used so that each and every user can understand what activities are involved in each step and also that these steps can be repeated and reworked when needing to change or improve the system. In the seventh and final phase, end users can fine-tune the completed system as necessary if they want to improve performance. Through maintenance efforts, the team can add new capabilities and features and meet new requirements set by the client. This phase also involves the actual installation of the newly-developed application. The project is put into production by moving all components and data from the old system and putting them in a new one through a direct cutover.

system development phases

Now it must be tested to make sure that there aren’t any bugs and that the end-user experience will not negatively be affected at any point. User Acceptance Testing (UAT) – also known as beta-testing, tests software in the real world by the intended audience. White-Box Testing – tests internal structures or workings of an application giving an internal perspective of the system. Black-Box Testing – examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal structures or workings. System Testing – conducts testing on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements.

Software Requirement

A well-planned and executed implementation, on the other hand, provides a high level of risk mitigation and cost containment. This act seeks to promote the meaningful use of information technology to improve patient safety in healthcare delivery. The initiative requires an organization or provider to demonstrate consistent and appropriate use of information technology. Adoption of the technology is required in stages, with increasing numbers of requirements in each stage.

He or she will determine if the proposed design meets the company’s goals. The testing must be repeated, if necessary, until the risk of errors and bugs has reached an acceptable level. Some methodologies offer specific outlines to go through this process to prevent costly mistakes or to speed up development. However, all methods are aimed at moving systems through the various relevant phases.

Benefits and drawbacks of SDLC

The Project Management Institute (PMI) has become the central and certifying organization for project management professionals. The Project Management Plan (PMP) developed through PMI’s efforts has migrated to the Information Technology system development phases (IT) area and is commonly called a project work plan (Project Management Institute, 2019). It is the main planning document for an IT project and describes how major aspects of the project will be executed and managed.

Share your plan with your team and key stakeholders to provide visibility, and assign tasks to individuals to ensure nothing slips through the cracks. If a problem is identified during any phase of the systems development life cycle, the developer may have to proceed through the life cycle phases once more. All phases of the systems development life cycle need to occur for the success of the app and satisfaction of its users. Phase 8 of the systems development life cycle is the post-implementation review.


Other steps which may appear include project initiation, functional specifications, detailed specifications, evaluation, end-of-life and other steps that can be created by splitting previous steps apart further. SDLC can be used to develop or engineer software, systems, and even information systems. It can also be used to develop hardware or a combination of both software and hardware at the same time.

system development phases

SDLC is used to give a rigid structure and framework to define the phases and steps involved in the development of a system. Each company will have their own defined best practices for the various stages of development. For example, testing may involve a defined number of end users and use case scenarios in order to be deemed successful, and maintenance may include quarterly, mandatory system upgrades. A system development life cycle or SDLC is essentially a project management model. It defines different stages that are necessary to bring a project from its initial idea or conception all the way to deployment and later maintenance. Transition management is a series of “… deliberate, planned interventions undertaken to assure successful adaptation/assimilation of a desired outcome into an organization” (Douglas & Wright, 2003).

Software Engineering

Proper system design ensures that the developed system aligns with the desired functionality, performance, and scalability requirements. Various SDLC methodologies have been developed to guide the processes involved, including the original SDLC method, the Waterfall model. Other SDLC models include rapid application development (RAD), joint application development (JAD), the fountain model, the spiral model, build and fix, and synchronize-and-stabilize. This includes all the specifications for software, hardware, and network requirements for the system they plan to build. This will prevent them from overdrawing funding or resources when working at the same place as other development teams.

  • In fact, in many cases, SDLC is considered a phased project model that defines the organizational, personnel, policy, and budgeting constraints of a large scale systems project.
  • Design documents typically include functional hierarchy diagrams, screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo-code, and a complete data model with a data dictionary.
  • Nurses have the ability to coordinate and manage multiple diverse care situations; this affords them strong skills to manage complex projects using a Project Workplan as a primary tool.
  • When teams have clarity into the work getting done, there’s no telling how much more they can accomplish in the same amount of time.
  • Transition management is a series of “… deliberate, planned interventions undertaken to assure successful adaptation/assimilation of a desired outcome into an organization” (Douglas & Wright, 2003).
  • Systems Development Life Cycle is a systematic approach which explicitly breaks down the work into phases that are required to implement either new or modified Information System.

Today’s increasing demand for data and information security also factor into the overall planning, training, testing, and deployment of a system. Those involved in the SDLC include the c-suite executives, but it is the project/program managers, software and systems engineers, users, and the development team who handle the multi-layered process. Each project has its own level of complexity in planning and execution, and often within an organization, project managers employ numerous SDLC methods. Even when an enterprise utilizes the same methods, different project tools and techniques can differ dramatically. Phase 6 of the initial development state of the systems development life cycle puts the software into production and runs as needed. If it performs the tasks correctly and represents the system, the developer moves on to the next phase of maintenance within the system development life cycle.

The Waterfall Model

SDLC models implement checks and balances to ensure that all software is tested before being installed in greater source code. SDLC provides a number of advantages to development teams that implement it correctly. Their output may be closer or farther from what the client eventually realizes they desire. It’s mostly used for smaller projects and experimental life cycles designed to inform other projects in the same company. Furthermore, developers are responsible for implementing any changes that the software might need after deployment.

system development phases

Business analyst and Project organizer set up a meeting with the client to gather all the data like what the customer wants to build, who will be the end user, what is the objective of the product. Before creating a product, a core understanding or knowledge of the product is very necessary. The following diagram shows the complete life cycle of the system during analysis and design phase.

What is the software development life cycle (SDLC)?

The second SDLC phase is where teams will work on the root of their problem or need for a change. In case there’s a problem to solve, possible solutions are submitted and analyzed to figure out the best fit for the project’s ultimate goal or goals. This is accomplished through « SRS »- Software Requirement Specification document which contains all the product requirements to be constructed and developed during the project life cycle. The development team must determine a suitable life cycle model for a particular plan and then observe to it. Project managers in charge of SDLC need the right tools to help manage the entire process, provide visibility to key stakeholders, and create a central repository for documentation created during each phase. One such tool is Smartsheet, a work management and automation platform that enables enterprises and teams to work better.

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